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    把握經濟全球化大勢 堅定不移全面擴大開放(3)(中英對照)

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    III. Adapting to the new trend of economic globalization in the post-Covid world and promoting a new development dynamic

    三、把握疫情后經濟全球化新動向,推動構建新發展格局

    President Xi has pointed out that, as the world enters a period of turmoil and change, a backlash is occurring against economic globalization. He has argued that changes in the global political and economic environment have intensified the trend of de-globalization, as some countries have engaged in unilateralism and protectionism, thus significantly weakening the traditional international flow. China's new development dynamic, President Xi has stressed, is not a closed loop, but rather made up of open and mutually reinforcing domestic and international flows. China does not seek to develop only itself or to engage in zero-sum games, nor will it pursue development behind closed doors; rather, it aims to foster, over time, a new development dynamic that is focused on domestic flows while facilitating positive interplay between domestic and international flows. This will create more space for China's economic development and add impetus to global economic recovery and growth.

    習近平總書記指出,經濟全球化遭遇逆流,世界進入動蕩變革期;隨著全球政治經濟環境變化,逆全球化趨勢加劇,有的國家大搞單邊主義、保護主義,傳統國際循環明顯弱化;新發展格局決不是封閉的國內循環,而是開放的、相互促進的國內國際雙循環;我們不追求一枝獨秀,不搞你輸我贏,也不會關起門來封閉運行,將逐步形成以國內大循環為主體、國內國際雙循環相互促進的新發展格局,為中國經濟發展開辟空間,為世界經濟復蘇和增長增添動力。

    The world economic landscape is going through profound changes.

    當前世界經濟形勢發生深刻變化。

    The international environment is increasingly complex, marked by a significant increase in instability and uncertainty. Global trade and investment growth is sluggish. Before the international financial crisis, global trade grew twice as fast as the global economy, but since then, growth in global trade and economy has roughly been on the same level. International organizations estimate that global trade would fall by about 30% in 2020, and will rebound by only 7.2% in 2021. Global direct investment would fall by 40%, with a further fall of 5% to 10% predicted for 2021. As populism and trade protectionism intensify, they are spreading from traditional industries to emerging and high-tech industries. Restrictions on international investment have been tightened.

    國際環境日趨復雜,不穩定性不確定性明顯增加。全球貿易投資增長低迷,國際金融危機前,全球貿易增速是經濟增速的2倍,危機后則與經濟增速大體持平。國際組織預測今年全球貿易下降30%左右,明年僅反彈7.2%;全球直接投資下降40%,明年繼續下降5%—10%。民粹主義加劇,貿易保護主義升溫,由傳統行業向新興產業、高技術產業擴展。國際投資限制加強。

    The conditions of China's development are changing.

    我國開放發展條件發生新變化。

    China's traditional advantages are being diminished while new ones are still in the process of being cultivated. In recent years, China's working population has gradually decreased, its cost advantages have been weakened, and some important resources have been in short supply. In 2019, China imported 80%, 72%, and 86% of its iron ore, crude oil, and soybeans, respectively. New advantages in areas like R&D, technology, standards, branding, and marketing still need to be further improved. The task of achieving high-quality development is indeed urgent. Yet, the advantages of China's vast market are obvious. China's economy is the second largest in the world. It has a per capita GDP of over US$10,000, a population of 1.4 billion, and a middle-income group of more than 400 million people. It possesses the world's most complete and largest industrial system with a full set of supporting capabilities. China is the world's most promising large market and its international attractiveness continues to grow.

    傳統優勢減弱,新優勢正在培育。近年來,我國勞動人口逐步減少,成本優勢弱化,部分重要資源短缺,2019年鐵礦砂、原油、大豆的對外依存度分別為80%、72%和86%,研發、技術、標準、品牌、營銷等新優勢有待提升,高質量發展的任務緊迫。超大規模市場優勢顯現。我國經濟總量居世界第二,人均GDP超過1萬美元,擁有14億人口、4億多中等收入群體,還有全球最完整、規模最大的工業體系和完善的配套能力,是全球最有潛力的大市場,國際吸引力持續增強。

    In the face of major changes in the domestic and international environments, as well as the arrival of a new stage of economic development, China will follow a new development philosophy, promote high-quality development, and accelerate the creation of a new development pattern. China will continue to implement the strategy of expanding domestic demand, it will open wider to the world on all fronts, and it will promote positive interplay between domestic and international flows.

    面對國內外環境的重大變化,把握我國進入新發展階段的新特征,我們堅持新發展理念,堅持高質量發展,提出加快構建新發展格局。我們要實施擴大內需戰略,全面擴大對外開放,促進國內國際雙循環良性互動。

    Building a large unified market accessible to the world. China has promoted far-reaching reform with high-standard opening up. It has improved urban and rural circulation networks, developed consumption, including spending on services, in urban and rural areas, promoted the integration of domestic and foreign trade, and expanded imports through its hosting of the China International Import Expo. In 2019, China's total retail sales of consumer goods reached 41 trillion yuan, second in the world. Imports reached US$2.1 trillion, and are expected to grow to US$22 trillion over the next decade. The Third China International Import Expo generated deals worth US$72.62 billion, helping to expand international demand despite the Covid-19 epidemic. Going forward, China will promote consumer spending in all domains, modernize trade flows, and expand imports of high-quality goods and services. We will make the Chinese market a market for the whole world to share in.

    ——建設全球共享的統一大市場。以高水平開放促深層次改革,完善城鄉流通網絡,大力發展城市、農村、服務消費,促進內外貿一體化,舉辦進博會積極擴大進口。2019年,我國社會消費品零售總額達41萬億元,穩居世界第二;進口2.1萬億美元,預計未來10年進口22萬億美元,第三屆進博會成交726.2億美元,在疫情下擴大了國際需求。未來,我們將全面促進消費,完善現代商貿流通體系,擴大高質量商品和服務進口,讓中國市場成為世界的市場、共享的市場、大家的市場。

    Attaining new standards in opening up. China will align its efforts to create a new development dynamic with the implementation of its coordinated regional development strategy and the development of pilot free trade zones. It will encourage pilot free trade zones to boldly carry out trials, make breakthroughs, and drive change. The development of Hainan's free trade port will also be accelerated. To date, 21 pilot free trade zones have been established, and 260 proven innovation outcomes have been replicated and applied elsewhere. The general plan for the development of the Hainan free trade port has been launched; it will promote the free flow of goods, services, capital, people, and information. In the coming period, China will push for high-quality development of pilot free trade zones and ports, developing them as important strategic nodes for the country's new development.

    ——打造對外開放新高地。把構建新發展格局同實施國家區域協調發展戰略、建設自貿試驗區等銜接起來,鼓勵自貿試驗區大膽試、大膽闖、自主改,加快推進海南自貿港建設。目前已設立21個自貿試驗區,復制推廣了260項制度創新成果。海南自貿港建設總體方案出臺,推動商品、服務、資金、人員、信息等自由流動。未來,我們要推動自貿試驗區、自貿港高質量發展,打造新發展格局的重要戰略支點。

    Promoting more open rules and institutions. Working to ensure alignment with international economic and trade rules, China has enhanced transparency, strengthened the protection of property rights, encouraged competition, and opposed monopoly practices to achieve a sustained improvement to its business environment. It has improved the management system for foreign investment, fully instituted a pre-entry national treatment plus negative list management system, and enacted the Foreign Investment Law. China's business environment has moved up to 31st place in the international rankings from 78th in 2017. The areas open to foreign investment have been consistently expanded to cover 120 of the 160 service sectors defined by the WTO. China has furthered reforms to streamline administration, delegate power, improve regulation, and upgrade services in the areas open to foreign investment in both inland and border regions. In the future, more attention will be paid to rules, regulations, management, standards and other forms of institutional openness, as China works to create a new and improved open economic system.

    ——推動規則等制度型開放。積極同國際經貿規則對接,增強透明度,強化產權保護,鼓勵競爭、反對壟斷,營商環境持續優化。完善外資管理體制,全面實施準入前國民待遇加負面清單管理制度,出臺外商投資法,營商環境國際排名從2017年的78位提升至第31位。開放領域和布局不斷擴大,在世貿組織定義的160個服務部門中,我國開放了120多個;深入推進開放領域放管服改革,深化內陸和沿邊開放。未來,我們將更加注重規則、規制、管理、標準等制度型開放,形成更高水平開放型經濟新體制。

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