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    諾貝爾獎的獎金是多少?關于諾獎的10個冷知識

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    10 Things You Might Not Know About the Nobel Prize

    諾貝爾獎的獎金是多少?關于諾獎的10個冷知識

    1. A MISTAKEN OBITUARY GAVE ALFRED NOBEL THE IDEA FOR THE PRIZES.

    一篇錯誤的訃告讓阿爾弗雷德·諾貝爾萌生創立諾貝爾獎的想法。

    61637e85a310cdd3d8125ee9.jpeg

    The story goes that Alfred Nobel was inspired to establish his awards in 1864 after a French newspaper mistakenly ran his obituary, called "The merchant of death is dead." Nobel didn't want that to be his legacy, and began thinking of more productive ways to be remembered for posterity. (The obituary was supposed to be for Nobel's younger brother Emil, who died while experimenting with nitroglycerine in their father's factory.)

    1864年一家法國報紙錯誤地刊登了阿爾弗雷德·諾貝爾的訃告,題為《死亡商人去世》,據說他因此受到啟發而設立了諾貝爾獎。諾貝爾不希望死后僅留下一篇訃告,并開始思考如何能讓子孫后代銘記自己的方法。(這篇訃告本來是諾貝爾的弟弟埃米爾的,他在父親的工廠用硝化甘油做實驗時去世。)

    The Nobel Prizes are announced in October and awarded December 10 each year, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel's actual death. He died of a stroke at the age of 63 in 1896.

    諾貝爾獎于每年10月公布,12月10日頒發,也就是阿爾弗雷德·諾貝爾逝世的日子。1896年,諾貝爾因中風逝世,享年63歲。

    2. ONE OF THE NOBEL PRIZE CEREMONIES TAKES PLACE IN NORWAY.

    其中一個諾貝爾獎的頒獎典禮在挪威舉行。

    The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded in Oslo and presented by the chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, while the other Nobel Prizes are awarded in Stockholm and presented by the King of Sweden. Alfred Nobel planned it that way in his will:

    諾貝爾和平獎在奧斯陸由挪威諾貝爾委員會主席頒發,其他諾貝爾獎在斯德哥爾摩由瑞典國王頒發。阿爾弗雷德·諾貝爾在他的遺囑中就是這樣規劃的:

    "The prizes for physics and chemistry shall be awarded by the Swedish Academy of Sciences; that for physiological or medical works by the Caroline Institute in Stockholm; that for literature by the Academy in Stockholm; and that for champions of peace by a committee of five persons to be elected by the Norwegian Storting.

    “物理和化學獎由瑞典科學院頒發;生理或醫學獎由斯德哥爾摩卡羅琳研究所頒發;文學獎由斯德哥爾摩科學院頒發;和平衛士獎由挪威議會選舉的五人委員會頒發?!?span style="white-space:normal;">

    3. THERE'S NO NOBEL PRIZE FOR ECONOMICS.

    沒有“諾貝爾經濟學獎”

    Notice that Nobel didn't mention economics in his will: that's because the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences is not a "Nobel Prize." It's technically the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. Sweden's central bank created the endowment in 1968.

    請注意,諾貝爾在他的遺囑中沒有提到經濟學:那是因為諾貝爾經濟學獎不是“諾貝爾獎”。嚴格來說,這個獎項是瑞典銀行為紀念阿爾弗雷德·諾貝爾而頒發的經濟學獎。瑞典中央銀行在1968年創立了該基金會。

    4. THE NOBEL PRIZES COME WITH CASH.

    諾貝爾獎獎金發現金

    Nobel Prize winners take home a diploma, a gold medal, and some cold, hard cash. In 2019, winners of "full Nobel Prizes" are awarded 9 million Swedish kroner, or almost $910,000.

    諾貝爾獎獲得者可以獲得一張證書、一枚獎牌和一些實實在在的現金。2019年,所有諾貝爾獎獲得者都獲得900萬瑞典克朗,約合人民幣586萬元。

    注:2020年諾貝爾獎獎金增加至1000萬瑞典克朗(約709萬元)。

    5. ORGANIZATIONS CAN WIN THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE.

    機構組織可以獲得諾貝爾和平獎

    Only individuals can be nominated for the Nobel Prizes in medicine, chemistry, literature, and physics, as well as the economics prize. Recent organizations that have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize include the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (2017), the European Union (2012), and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007).

    只有個人才能獲得諾貝爾醫學獎、化學獎、文學獎、物理學獎和經濟學獎提名。最近獲得諾貝爾和平獎的組織包括國際廢除核武器運動(2017年)、歐盟(2012年)和聯合國政府間氣候變化專門委員會(2007年).

    6. UP TO THREE INDIVIDUALS CAN WIN EACH NOBEL PRIZE.

    每項諾貝爾獎最多可有三位獲獎者

    For teams larger than three, the committee will choose who gets left out. If two people win, the prize money is split equally. If three people win, the awarding committee chooses how to divide the prize.

    對于三人以上的團隊,委員會將決定誰被排除在外。如果兩人獲獎,獎金將平均分配。如果三人獲獎,頒獎委員會將決定如何分配獎金。

    7. PEOPLE DON'T KNOW WHEN THEY'VE BEEN NOMINATED.

    人們不知道自己什么時候被提名過。

    Nobel Prize nomination records are kept sealed for 50 years after the award is given. Winners don't know they're nominated until they win.

    諾貝爾獎的提名記錄在頒獎后被封存50年。獲獎者在獲獎之前不知道自己被提名了。

    8. THERE ARE NO POSTHUMOUS NOBEL PRIZE NOMINATIONS.

    沒有人在去世后獲得諾貝爾獎

    Eleanor Roosevelt, James Joyce, Mahatma Gandhi, and many others will never be able to bask in the Nobel spotlight. Gandhi was this close to winning: he'd been nominated a number of times and had just been nominated a third time days before his 1948 assassination. Geir Lundestad, a former director of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, called Gandhi's absence from the list of Nobel laureates "the greatest omission" in the prize's history.

    埃莉諾·羅斯福、詹姆斯·喬伊斯、圣雄甘地和其他許多人永遠無法獲得諾貝爾獎了。甘地差一點就獲獎,他曾多次獲得提名,在1948年遇刺前幾天,他剛剛獲得第三次諾貝爾獎提名。挪威諾貝爾委員會前主任蓋爾·倫德斯塔德稱,甘地沒有得獎是諾貝爾獎歷史上“最大的疏忽”。

    9. ALFRED NOBEL ORIGINALLY INTENDED TO GIVE AWARDS FOR WORK FROM THE PRECEDING YEAR.

    阿爾弗雷德·諾貝爾最初打算為前一年的成果頒獎。

    That criteria occasionally meant honoring ideas in the sciences that weren't sufficiently tested or investigated. Case in point: Johannes Fibiger's 1926 discovery that parasitic worms allegedly caused cancer in rats. (They don't.) Now most scientific discoveries and innovations are honored after they've stood the test of time.

    這一標準有時意味著尊重科學中未經充分檢驗或調查的觀點。例如,約翰·菲比格在1926年發現寄生蠕蟲會導致大鼠患癌癥(事實并非如此)?,F在,大多數科學發現和創新都是在經受了時間的考驗后被人們接受的。

    10. EVENING WEAR IS A MUST FOR NOBEL LAUREATES.

    諾貝爾獎獲得者必須穿晚禮服。

    Nobel laureates are required to give a public lecture within six months of accepting their award. Most of them fulfill the obligation during Nobel Week in Stockholm. Then, at the end of the week, they get to party. The Nobel banquet includes live music, a three-course dinner, dancing, and a strict dress code. Men must wear white tie, consisting of "a black tailcoat with silk facings, sharply cut away at the front; black trousers with two rows of braid down each leg, white stiff-fronted shirt, white stiff wing collar attached to the shirt with collar studs, white bow tie, white low-cut waistcoat, black dress socks and black formal shoes." Women have it a little easier, with no restrictions on the color or design of their evening gowns. Long gloves and a shawl are optional.

    諾貝爾獎獲得者需要在領獎后六個月內發表公開演講。他們中的大多數人在斯德哥爾摩的諾貝爾周期間履行這項義務,然后在周末參加聚會。諾貝爾晚宴包括現場音樂表演、三道菜的晚餐、舞會,晚宴對著裝也有嚴格要求。男性必須穿著白領結晚禮服,包括一件絲綢領口、正面裁短的黑色燕尾服;每只褲腿有兩排穗帶的黑色褲子,白色硬領襯衫和領扣,白色領結,白色低開領馬甲,黑色正裝襪和黑色正裝鞋。女性著裝要求更簡單些,不受顏色或設計的限制。長手套和披肩可戴可不戴。

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